Misganu Taso Ayana
The body's defense against infection is provided by the intricate network of organs, cells, and proteins known as the immune system. The two types of adaptive immune responses that enable the human body to defend itself against harmful agents such as bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens are cellular immunity and humoral immunity. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are proteins that have been changed and are created by clones from an antibody-producing cell line. They are a homogeneous mixture of antibodies that are monospecific in nature and have affinity and specificity towards one epitope of a selected antigen (monovalent affinity). With the introduction of monovalent antibodies, the breadth of therapeutic and diagnostic applications has grown to include numerous sectors of biotechnology such as molecular biology, toxicology, biochemistry, and medicine. Currently, about 30 monoclonal antibodies are approved by the FDA for use in humans for treating various diseases and conditions including cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, transplantation, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. With major advances in genetic sequencing and biomedical research, much research into monoclonal antibodies now focuses on identifying new targets for development and maximizing their efficacy for use in clinical practice. There are currently several treatment alternatives available, including antiviral medicines, monoclonal antibodies, and immunomodulatory drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are now established as targeted therapies for malignancies, transplant rejection, autoimmune and infectious diseases, as well as a range of new indications. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are a key class of biopharmaceutical products that has grown briskly in product approvals and sales, from the time when the first mAb was commercialized. In addition to targeting antigens involved in cancer cell physiology, antibodies can also function to modulate immunological pathways that are critical to immune surveillance. Generally, the aim of this paper is to compile the application of monoclonal antibodies in therapy and vaccine developments.
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