Farouk S Nas, Muhammad S Abdallah, Lurwanu Mu’azu, Muhammad Ali
In order to survive, the host has developed distinct strategies to recognize and respond effectively and rapidly to invading microorganisms present within the environment. Two types of immunity are utilized to protect the host against microbial pathogens: innate and adaptive (acquired) immunity. HIV can be transmitted via four major routes: through sexual contact, blood, perinatally (mother-to-child transmission) or via breast milk. HIV can be found as cell-free viral particles or in infected immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells and natural killer cells) are the first line of defence which HIV encounters upon entry to the body. The cellular immune response is induced upon the entry of HIV into the target cells (e.g., T cells) and synthesis of viral proteins. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I on the cell surface displays the intracellularly degraded HIV peptide fragments for recognition by T-cell receptors (TCR) on CD8+ T cells. The paper was aimed to review host immune response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
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